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      APA參考文獻格式范例 Example Essay with APA Referencing

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2021-09-20 16:08:45 來源:www.orient-thai.net 作者:留學作業網
      APA參考文獻格式是指美國心理學協會的參照風格第6版,是心理學研究文獻中最流行和最常用的參照風格形式之一。下面的文章將討論APA style 的參考在心理學文獻中的重要性,以及學術論文中的一致性。除此之外,這篇文章可以作為一個基本的指導,讓學生正確引用和引用一篇文章使用這種特殊的引用風格。為此,本文將以APA的參考文獻格式引用所有資料。
      APA參考文獻格
      APA參考文獻格
      APA style referencing refers to American Psychological Association’s referencing style 6th edition, and is one of the most popular and frequently used forms of referencing style within psychological research literature (Dryjanska, 2017; Gaffney, 2016; DeCleene & Fogo, 2012). The following essay will provide a discussion of the importance of APA style referencing within psychological literature but also in terms of consistency within academic essays. In addition to this, this essay can be used as a basic guide for students to properly cite and reference an essay using this particular referencing style. To this end, all sources will be cited and referenced within this essay in APA style.
      使用APA格式引用的最重要原因之一是,它確保學術文獻和研究報告標準化,并支持對科學理想的承諾。從這個意義上說,使用APA格式的引用是很重要的,以符合如何研究論文和文章在硬科學,如化學引用,并特別重要的是提出復雜的信息和研究結果以簡潔和邏輯的方式。此外,這種引用方式意味著引用和引文是標準化的,并且在使用APA引用的論文中具有連續性。
      One of the most important reasons for using APA style referencing is that it ensures that academic literature and research reporting is standardised and supports a commitment to the scientific ideal (Safer & Tang, 2009; Madigan, Johnson & Linton, 1995). In this sense, using APA style referencing is important in order to conform to how research papers and articles are referenced in the hard sciences like Chemistry, and is particularly important with regards to presenting complex information and findings in a succinct and logical manner (Simmons, 2004; Madigan, Johnson & Linton, 1995). Furthermore, such a referencing style means that referencing and citations are standardised and there is continuity within papers that use APA referencing (Walsh & Shapiro, 2006; Simmons, 2004; Polkinghorne, 1997).
      在這一點上,適當的引用是很重要的,以便向讀者展示或告知信息或證據的來源,并防止剽竊的指控。合法引用向讀者表明,這些陳述或論點不是作者的獨立思想,而是先前研究者的獨立思想。因此,如果讀者希望進一步閱讀該主題,適當的參考使他們能夠使用參考文獻列表來搜索信息的來源。因此,使用APA格式的恰當引用可以保證所有的資料都被恰當地引用和引用,并使讀者能夠理解什么是其他研究者的論點,什么是作者的獨立思考和批判性分析,從而避免抄襲。
      On this note, proper referencing is important in order to demonstrate to or inform the reader where the information or evidence has come from and prevent accusations of plagiarism. Legitimate referencing shows the reader that the statements or arguments are not independent thoughts of the writer, but rather those of previous researchers (Dryjanska, 2017; Simmons, 2004). Due to this, appropriate referencing enables the reader to search for the source of the information by using the references list if they wish to read up further on the subject (Simmons, 2004; Kazdin, 1992). Therefore, proper referencing using APA style guarantees that all sources are properly cited and referenced as well as enabling the reader to understand what are arguments of other researchers and what is independent thought and critical analysis from the writer, thus avoiding plagiarism.
      APA格式的參照是一種相對容易學習和記憶的參照風格,例如在引文和參考文獻中使用“&”代替“and”。此外,在引用資料來源時,應提供作者姓名,后跟出版日期。首先,所有作者的名字都應該被引用,除非有6位以上的作者,其中前6位被引用,然后是“等人”和日期。初審后,對于3位以上的作者,應引用來源為第一作者,然后是“等人”和日期。因此,APA風格是最常用的引用形式之一,了解這種風格意味著學生可以快速瀏覽期刊文章或書籍,并立即知道誰說了什么,什么時候說了什么。
      APA style referencing is a relatively easy referencing style to learn and remember (Cook & Murowchick, 2014; Adair & Vohra, 2003), such as the use of ‘&’ instead of ‘and’ in citations and references. Further to this, when citing sources, the name of the author or authors should be provided followed by the date of publication. In the first instance, all authors’ names should be cited unless there are more than 6 authors wherein the first 6 are cited followed by ‘et al’ and then the date. After the first instance, for more than 3 authors, the source should be cited as the first author and then ‘et al’ and the date (DeCleene & Fogo, 2012; Adair & Vohra, 2003), such as Smith et al (date). Therefore, as APA style is one of the most frequently used forms of referencing (Dryjanska, 2017; Gaffney, 2016; DeCleene & Fogo, 2012), having knowledge of this style means that a student can quickly scan through a journal article or book and instantly know who said what and when.
      盡管如此,實證研究表明,引用和引用工作的技能在大學里發展了兩年。例如,Gaffney進行了一項定量研究,以了解兩年來本科生在APA的參考文獻格式中的技能是如何進步的。研究發現,“第二年的數據顯示情況有所改善”。因此,這段簡短的引語很有用,因為它提供了有關研究結果的簡明信息,但也可以作為研究中APA格式引語的一個例子,其中作者、日期和頁碼必須被引用,引語必須用語音標記和斜體。使用APA格式引用的引文不應該太長,也不應該很少使用,通常是在沒有其他方式來陳述或解釋來源中所說的話時。
      In spite of this, though, empirical research has indicated that skills with referencing and citing work develops over two years at university (Gaffney, 2016). For example, a quantitative study by Gaffney (2016) was performed to see how undergraduates’ skills in APA style referencing progressed over two years. It was found that “Data from year two demonstrated improvement” (Gaffney, 2016, p.148). As such, this short quote is useful as it provides concise information about the findings, but can also be used as an example of APA style quotations within research in which the author, date and page number must be cited and the quote within speech marks and in Italics (Cook & Murowchick, 2014). Quotations using APA style referencing should not be overly long and used infrequently, generally when there is no other way to state or explain what has been said within the source (Walsh & Shapiro, 2006).
      另一方面,在心理學研究和學術寫作中,還有其他引用風格同樣流行,例如哈佛引用風格,在英國和英國大學中尤其流行。盡管如此,許多研究人員和心理學家認為,APA格式的引用是最好的風格之一,而且這種技能已經被證明很容易轉移到其他形式的引用風格和學科。同樣,通過學習APA格式的引用,學生將符合許多科學和學術期刊的引用標準,這意味著在未來,如果他們希望發表一篇科學文章,他們將已經擁有必要的參考技能,以幫助他們提交。因此,獲得APA參考技巧對于以標準化和經常使用的樣式進行報告非常有用,但也可以用來輕松地選擇其他參考樣式。有鑒于此,《美國心理協會手冊》第6版是遵循標準化指南以科學和標準化的方式呈現報告和心理文獻的有用手段。
      On the other hand, there are other referencing styles that are just as popular within psychological research and academic writing, such as that of Harvard referencing style, which is particular popular in the UK and in UK universities (Martin, 2007). Nonetheless, many researchers and psychologists believe APA style referencing to be one of the best styles, and such skills have been shown to be easily transferred to other forms of referencing styles and disciplines (Cook & Murowchick, 2014). Likewise, by learning APA style referencing, students will conform to the standards of referencing for many scientific and academic journals (Gaffney, 2016; Cook & Murowchick, 2014; Simmons, 2004), meaning that in the future if they wished to publish a scientific article, they would already possess the necessary referencing skills to help with their submission. Consequently, gaining APA referencing skills is highly useful for reporting in a standardised and frequently used style, but it can also be used to easily pick up other referencing styles. In light of this, the 6th edition of the Manual of the American Psychological Association is a useful means by which to follow a standardised guide to presenting reports and psychological literature in a scientific and standardised manner (Dryjanska, 2017; DeCleene & Fogo, 2012).
      In conclusion, this essay has discussed of the importance of APA style referencing within psychological literature, but also acted as an example of how to cite and reference a psychology essay in APA style. Following a particular referencing style is important within psychological literature as it sets a standard of reporting by which all psychological research can follow, making it easy for psychologists and students to understand where evidence and information has come from. Likewise, within academic essays, the use of APA style referencing means that the evidence presented within essays reflects scientific research reporting. To close, this essay can be used as an example for students to learn how sources should be cited and referenced in the APA style.

      References:
      Adair, J. G., & Vohra, N. (2003). The explosion of knowledge, references, and citations:
      Psychology’s unique response to a crisis. American Psychologist, 58(1), 15-23.
      Cook, K. E., & Murowchick, E. (2014). Do Literature Review Skills Transfer from One
      Course to Another?. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 13(1), 3-11.
      DeCleene, K. E., & Fogo, J. (2012). Publication Manual of the American Psychological
      Association. Occupational therapy in health care, 26(1), 90-92.
      Dryjanska, L. (2017). An organizational scandal in psychology: social representations of
      Hoffman Report in Europe. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 1-15.
      Gaffney, A. L. H. (2016). Revising and Reflecting: How Assessment of APA Style
      Evolved Over Two Assessment Cycles in an Undergraduate Communication Program. Journal of Assessment and Institutional Effectiveness, 5(2), 148-167.
      Kazdin, A. E. (1992). Research Design in Clinical Psychology (Vol. 3). US: Boston: Allyn
      and Bacon.
      Madigan, R., Johnson, S., & Linton, P. (1995). The language of psychology: APA style as
      epistemology. American Psychologist, 50(6), 428-436.
      Martin, D. W. (2007). Doing Psychology Experiments. UK: Cengage Learning.
      Polkinghorne, D. E. (1997). Reporting qualitative research as practice. In W. G. Tierney. &
      Y. S. Lincoln. (Eds). Representation and the text: Re-framing the narrative voice. US: State University of New York Press.
      Safer, M. A., & Tang, R. (2009). The psychology of referencing in psychology journal
      articles. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(1), 51-53.
      Simmons, B. A. (2004). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
      Technical Communication, 51(1), 113-115.
      Walsh, R., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western
      psychology: a mutually enriching dialogue. American Psychologist, 61(3), 227-239.
       
      綜上所述,本文論述了APA參考文獻格式引用在心理學文獻中的重要性,并舉例說明了如何引用APA格式的心理學論文。在心理學文獻中,遵循一種特定的參照方式是很重要的,因為它設定了一個報告標準,所有的心理學研究都可以遵循這個標準,這使得心理學家和學生很容易理解證據和信息的來源。同樣,在學術論文中,使用APA格式的引用意味著論文中呈現的證據反映了科學研究報告。最后,本文可以作為一個例子,讓學生學習如何引用和引用APA參考文獻格式的資料。
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