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      PEST分析法寫作范文:PEST Analysis of India's Banking Sector

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2021-10-08 13:35:50 來源:www.orient-thai.net 作者:留學作業網
      PEST分析法寫作范文-印度銀行業的PEST分析。本文是一篇留學生作業運用了PEST Analysis,也就是PEST分析法的寫作內容。通過政治,經濟,社會和技術這四個環境因素對印度的銀行業進行分析。小編之前給各位講述過PEST Analysis的具體寫作方法,為了能讓廣大留學生們能更直觀的了解PEST分析法怎么寫,這次就提供一篇具體的PEST Analysis范文供各位參考,下面就來一起看一下:
      PEST分析法
      PEST分析法
      HISTORY OF BANKING SECTOR 銀行業發展史
      印度第一家銀行成立于1786年,從1786年至今,印度銀行體系的發展歷程可分為三個階段。
      The first bank in India was established in 1786.from 1786 till now ,the journey of Indian banking system can be segregated into three distint phases .
      Early phase from 1786 to 1969 of Indian banks 1786-1969年印度銀行業發展的早期階段
      Nationalisation of Indian Banks and up to 1991 prior to Indian banking sector Reforms. 印度銀行國有化,直至1991年印度銀行業改革之前
      New phase of Bankig System after banking sector reforms.銀行業改革后銀行體系的新階段
      STEPS TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT 政府采取的步驟
      以下是印度政府為監管國內銀行機構而采取的措施
      The following are the steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking Institutions in the Country
      1949: Enactment of Banking Regulation Act
      1955: Nationalisation of State Bank of India.
      1959: Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries.
      1961: Insurance cover extended to deposits
      1969: Nationalisation of 14 major banks.
      1971: Creation of credit guarantee corPoration
      1975: Creation of regional rural banks.
      1980: Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200
      銀行的商業作用不僅限于銀行業,還包括:
      The commercial role of banks is not limited to banking, and includes:
      issue of banknotes
      processing of payments by way of telegraphic transfer, EFTPOS, internet
      banking or other means
      Issuing bank drafts and bank cheques
      Accepting money on term deposit
      lending money by way of overdraft, installment loan or otherwise
      providing documentary and standby letters of credit (tradefinance),guarantees,
      performance bonds, securities underwriting commitments and other forms of off- balance sheet exposures
      safekeeping of documents and other items in safe deposit boxes
      currency exchange
      Acting as a ‘financial supermarket’ for the sale, distribution or brokerage, with or without advice, of insurance, unit trusts and similar financialproducts
      ROLE OF BANKS 銀行的作用
      Capital formation
      Monetization
      Innovations
      Finance for priority sectors
      Provision for medium and long term finance
      Cheap money policy
      Need for a sound banking system
      FUNCTIONS OF A BANK 銀行的職能
      Accepting Deposits from public/others ( deposit).
      Lending money to public ( loan).
      Transferring money from one place to another (remittances).
      Credit Creation.
      Acting as trustees.
      Keeping valuable in safe custody
      Investment decisions and analysis.
      Government business,
      Other type of lending and transaction
      TYPES OF BANKING 銀行業務類型
      Central bank
      Commercial bank
      Industrial bank
      Agricultural bank
      Foreign Exchange bank
      Indigenous bank
      Rural bank
      Co-operative bank
      BANKING SECTOR REFORMS 銀行業改革
      991年,印度儲備銀行提議印度儲備銀行前行長納拉西姆哈姆(Narasimham)負責審查金融體系。與金融體系的結構、組織和運作有關的方面。德納拉西姆委員會向財政部長曼莫漢·辛格提交了一份關于銀行業改革的報告,報告強調了印度銀行體系的弱點,并根據《巴塞爾準則》提出了改革措施。            
      五年內將法定流動比率(SLR)降至25%。             
      逐步降低現金儲備率(CRR)。逐步取消定向信貸計劃和重新界定優先領域             
      放松利率管制,以反映新興市場的情況             
      提高銀行資產負債表的透明度并進行更多披露            
       設立專門規則,加快貸款回收進程。             
      銀行體系的重組,國家銀行部分向國際銀行轉型,部分向國有銀行轉型。
      In 1991, the RBI had proposed to from the committee chaired by M. Narasimham, former RBI Governor in order to review the Financial System viz. aspects relating to the Structure, Organisations and Functioning of the financial system. TheNarasimham Committee report, submitted to the finance minister, Manmohan Singh, on the banking sector reforms highlighted the weaknesses in the Indian banking system and suggested reform measures based on the Basle norms..The main recommendations of the Committee were.
      Reduction of Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR) to 25 per cent over a period of five years.
      Progressive reduction in Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR). Phasing out of directed credit programmes and redefinition of the priority sector
      Deregulation of interest rates so as to reflect emerging market conditions
      Imparting transparency to bank balance sheets and making more disclosures
      Setting up of special rule to speed up the process of recovery of loan.
      Restructuring of the banking system, national bank to international bank some and nationalised some other bank.
      Abolition of branch licensing
      Liberalising the policy with regard to allowing foreign banks to open offices in India
      Rationalisation of foreign operations of Indian banks
      Giving freedom to individual banks to recruit officers
      Inspection by supervisory authorities based essentially on the internal audit and inspection reports
      Ending duality of control over banking system by Banking Division and RBI
      PEST ANALYSIS
      (P)OLITICAL/ LEGAL ENVIROMENT 政治/法律環境
      政府和印度儲備銀行的政策影響著銀行業。有時,政府會考慮某個政黨的政治優勢,宣布一些措施來保護他們的利益,比如免除短期農業貸款,以吸引農民的選票。這樣一來,銀行的利潤就會受到影響。合作社中的多家銀行都是由政客們開辦和經營的。他們利用這些銀行謀取利益。有時政府會任命不同的銀行董事長。印度儲備銀行根據本國的現狀制定了各種政策,以便更好地控制銀行。
      Government and RBI policies affect the banking sector. Sometimes looking into the political advantage of a particular party, the Government declares some measures to their benefits like waiver of short-term agricultural loans, to attract the farmer’s votes. By doing so the profits of the bank get affected. Various banks in the cooperative sector are open and run by the politicians. They exploit these banks for their benefits. Sometimes the government appoints various chairmen of the banks. Various policies are framed by the RBI looking at the present situation of the country for better control over the banks.
      (E)CONOMICAL ENVIROMENT 經濟環境
      銀行業源遠流長,現代商業銀行業源遠流長。在印度,銀行業一直以這樣或那樣的形式存在?,F在的銀行業時代可以認為始于1809年根據政府憲章成立孟加拉銀行,政府參與股本。阿拉哈巴德銀行成立于1865年,旁遮普國家銀行成立于1895年,因此,印度儲備銀行每年都會宣布其6個月政策,并相應地實施各種措施和利率,對銀行業產生影響。此外,工會預算還影響到銀行業,通過給予某些優惠或便利來提振經濟。如果在預算內鼓勵儲蓄,那么更多的存款將被吸引到銀行,反過來銀行可以向農業部門和工業部門放貸更多的資金,因此,如果放寬外國直接投資的限制,那么更多的外國直接投資將通過銀行渠道進入印度。
      Banking is as old as authentic history and the modern commercial banking are traceable to ancient times. In India, banking has existed in one form or the other from time to time. The present era in banking may be taken to have commenced with establishment of bank of Bengal in 1809 under the government charter and with government participation in share capital. Allahabad bank was started in the year 1865 and Punjab national bank in 1895, and thus, others followed Every year RBI declares its 6 monthly policy and accordingly the various measures and rates are implemented which has an impact on the banking sector. Also the Union budget affects the banking sector to boost the economy by giving certain concessions or facilities. If in the Budget savings are encouraged, then more deposits will be attracted towards the banks and in turn they can lend more money to the agricultural sector and industrial sector, therefore,booming the economy If the FDI limits are relaxed, then more FDI are brought in India through banking channels.
      (S)OCIAL ENVIROMENT 社會環境
      在銀行國有化之前,它們的控制權掌握在私人黨派手中,只有大企業和社會的污水部門從印度的銀行業中受益。1969年,政府將14家銀行收歸國有。為了適應銀行業的社會發展,有必要在民主政治制度中迅速取得符合社會正義的經濟進步,這一制度不受法律的支配,機會對所有人開放。因此,考慮到國家和社會目標,銀行家們被指示幫助社會中經濟較弱的部分,并以靈活和自由的態度向所有經濟部門提供基于需求的融資?,F在銀行向農民、職業婦女、專業人士、貿易商提供各種貸款,也向學生提供教育貸款、住房貸款、消費貸款,擁有大客戶或大公司的銀行必須為其客戶提供個性化銀行服務,因為這些客戶不相信為了完成工作而四處奔波和排隊等候。銀行家們還必須為這些客戶提供特殊的準備金,有時還要提供食物和聚會等福利。但銀行并不介意因為這些客戶為銀行帶來的業務而承擔這些成本。銀行改變了印度的人類生活文化,使人們的生活更加輕松。
      Before nationalization of the banks, their control was in the hands of the private parties and only big business houses and the effluent sections of the society were getting benefits of banking in India. In 1969 government nationalized 14 banks. To adopt the social development in the banking sector it was necessary for speedy economic progress, consistent with social justice, in democratic political system, which is free from domination of law, and in which opportunities are open to all. Accordingly, keeping in mind both the national and social objectives,bankers were given direction to help economically weaker section of the society and also provide need-based finance to all the sectors of the economy with flexible and liberal attitude. Now the banks provide various types of loans to farmers, working women, professionals, and traders.They also provide education loan to the students and housing loans, consumer loans, etc.Banks having big clients or big companies have to provide services like personalized banking to their clients because these customers do not believe in running about and waiting in queues for getting their work done. The bankers also have to provide these customers with special provisions and at times with benefits like food and parties. But the banks do not mind incurring these costs because of the kind of business these clients bring for the bank. Banks have changed the culture of human life in India and have made life much easier for the people.
      (T)ECHNOLOGICAL ENVIROMENT 技術環境
      技術環境在銀行內部控制中起著非常重要的作用,計算機、電信等技術的最新發展促使銀行業者將分支銀行的概念轉變為異地銀行。ATM和網上銀行的使用使得“隨時隨地的銀行”成為可能。自動錄音機現在可以回答簡單的查詢,貨幣記賬機使這項工作更容易,自助柜臺也得到了鼓勵。信用卡設施鼓勵了一個無現金社會的時代。如今,萬事達卡和維薩卡是世界上最流行的兩種信用卡。這些銀行現在已經開始發行用于支付的智能卡或借記卡。這些也被稱為電子錢包。一些銀行還通過電信設施和計算機技術,利用安裝在客戶家中的終端,開始了家庭銀行業務,他們可以查詢余額、獲取對賬單、指示資金轉移,通過ECS,我們可以直接將股息和利息存入我們的賬戶,避免延遲或失去職位的機會。如今,銀行也將短信和互聯網作為主要的促銷工具,并為客戶提供極大的便利。例如,短信功能通過簡單的文字信息從您的手機發送。銀行會識別這些信息,為您提供所需的信息。所有這些技術變革都迫使銀行家們采用基于客戶的方法,而不是基于產品的方法。
      Technology environment plays a very important role in bank’s internal control.The latest developments in technology like computer and telecommunication have promoted the bankers to change the concept of branch banking to anywhere banking. The use of ATM and Internet banking has allowed ‘anytime, anywhere banking’ facilities. Automatic voice recorders now answer simple queries, currency accounting machines makes the job easier and self-service counters are now encouraged. Credit card facility has encouraged an era of cashless society. Today MasterCard and Visa card are the two most popular cards used world over. The banks have now started issuing smartcards or debit cards to be used for making payments. These are also called as electronic purse. Some of the banks have also started home banking through telecommunication facilities and computer technology by using terminals installed at customers home and they can make the balance inquiry, get the statement of accounts, give instructions for fund transfers, etc. Through ECS we can receive the dividends and interest directly to our account avoiding the delay or chance of loosing the post. Today banks are also using SMS and Internet as major tool of promotions and giving great utility to its customers. For example SMS functions through simple text messages sent from your mobile. The messages are then recognized by the bank to provide you with the required information. All these technological changes have forced the bankers adopt customer-based approach instead of product-based approach.
       
      PEST分析法寫作范文也就是上面所展示的全部內容就是一篇留學生作業所運用到的PEST Analysis ,是國外大學比較常見的一種分析方法,對于初到國外留學或者第一次接觸到PEST Analysis的學生們而言是一件比較困難的事,希望本次提供的PEST Analysis范文,結合之前的PEST Analysis的寫作技巧,能順利幫助留學生們順利完成任務。本站提供各國作業PEST Analysis寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。
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