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            英國essay 澳洲essay 美國essay 加拿大essay MBA Essay Essay格式范文

            MBA Essay作業:Advantages and Disadvantages of the SERVQUAL Model

            論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-01-12 09:29:02 來源:www.orient-thai.net 作者:留學作業網

            本文是MBA專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“Advantages and Disadvantages of the SERVQUAL Model(SERVQUAL模型的優缺點)”,本章概述了SERVQUAL模型及其優缺點;其次是構成模型的變量(自變量和因變量);最后以結論結束。

            Introduction 介紹

            This chapter provides an overview regarding the SERVQUAL model, his advantages and disadvantages; followed by the variables (independent and dependent variables) that constitute the model; and finalizing with a conclusion.


            Knowing the customer(s) is the key to a successful customer service as the idea is to create, deliver and communicate superior value. The service and/or products offer should answer to the needs and demands. Customers are the most important people for any organization. They are the resources upon which the success of the business depends. Understanding customers are necessary not only because of their effect on marketing decisions but because customersactivities influence the entire organization. When thinking about the importance of customers its useful to remember the following points (Christ, 2009):


            Repeat business is the backbone of selling. It helps to provide revenue and certainty for the business;


            Organizations are dependent upon their customers. If they do not develop customer loyalty and satisfaction, they could lose their customers;


            Without customers the organization would not exist;

            The purpose of the organization is to fulfill the needs of the customers;

            The customer makes it possible to achieve business aims.

            Customer demands and preferences of different products and services is a subject of concern for many business areas. For the security service industries it means providing a variety of products and services that customers wants. However, these customerspreferences and choices are not similar from one customer to another. These differences make it hard for the security services companies as for other businesses to meet diverse demands. Thus, the knowledge of customerspreferences and their choices of products and services provided is one of the most significant characteristic for meeting customersexpectations and exceeding their perceptions.


            Based on the abovementioned nothing would benefit companies more than an accurate and valid measure of service quality that helps them in measuring their performance. Such a measure would help them in evaluating their performance and taking corrective actions wherever required in order achieve their mission (Guar & Agrawal, 2006).


            Service Quality (SERVQUAL) 服務質量(SERVQUAL)


            As early as 1985 the authors Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry identified ten components of service quality namely Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Understanding/Knowing the customer, and Tangibles. These ten components were later (1988) merged into five dimensions namely Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness. Of the original ten components only three components remain Reliability, tangible and Responsiveness remained distinct, while the remaining seven components merged into two aggregate dimensions of Assurance and Empathy. SERVQUAL was developed by measuring service quality across service environment (Guar & Agrawal, 2006). Measurement allows for comparison before and after changes, for the location of quality related problems and for the establishment of clear standards for service delivery (Shahin, 2006)


            早在1985年,作者Parasuraman、ZeithamlBerry就確定了服務質量的十個組成部分,即可靠性、響應性、能力、訪問性、禮貌性、溝通性、可信度、安全性、理解/了解客戶和有形物。這十個要素后來(1988)合并為五個維度,即可靠性、保證性、有形物、移情和響應性。在最初的十個要素中,只有三個要素仍然存在——可靠性、有形性和響應性仍然是不同的,而剩下的七個要素合并為保證和移情這兩個總體維度。SERVQUAL是通過測量跨服務環境的服務質量而開發的(Guar & Agrawal, 2006)。測量允許在變更前后進行比較,用于質量相關問題的位置,并為提供服務建立明確的標準(Shahin, 2006)


            The SERVQUAL model SERVQUAL模型

            Service quality is linked to the concept of perceptions and expectations. Customers evaluate service quality by comparing what they expect with how a service provider actually performs. Thus, service quality can be defined as the difference between customersexpectations of service and their perception of actual service performance; formally the degree and direction of discrepancy between customersservice perceptions and expectations. Service quality is a measure of how well the service level delivered matches customer expectations. Delivering quality service means conforming to customersexpectations on a consistent basis. Customersperceptions of service quality result from a comparison of their before-service expectations with their actual-service experience. The service will be considered excellent, if the perception exceed expectations; it will be regarded as good or adequate, if only equals the perceptions; the service will be classed as bad, poor or deficient, if it does not meet them. Based on this the authors developed a scale for measuring service quality, which is mostly popular known as SERVQUAL. This scale operationalizes service quality by calculating the difference between expectations and perceptions, evaluating both in relation to 22 items that represent the 5 service quality dimensions knows as Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, assurance and Empathy (Zeithaml & Parasuraman, 2004).

            服務質量與感知和期望的概念有關??蛻敉ㄟ^比較他們的期望和服務提供者的實際執行情況來評估服務質量。因此,服務質量可以定義為顧客對服務的期望與他們對實際服務績效的感知之間的差異;形式上是指顧客對服務的感知和期望之間差異的程度和方向?!胺召|量是衡量提供的服務水平如何滿足顧客的期望。提供優質服務意味著始終如一地滿足顧客的期望?!鳖櫩蛯Ψ召|量的感知來自于他們服務前的期望與實際服務體驗的比較。如顧客對服務的印象超過預期,則會被認為是優質服務;它只要與知覺相等,就會被認為是善的或適足的;如果服務不符合要求,就會被歸類為差、差或有缺陷。在此基礎上,作者開發了一種度量服務質量的量表,它最流行的名稱是SERVQUAL。該量表通過計算期望和感知之間的差異來實現服務質量的運行,并通過22個項目來評估服務質量,這些項目代表了5個服務質量維度,即有形、可靠、響應、保證和移情(zethaml & Parasuraman, 2004)。


            SERVQUAL is the dominant approach to quantitatively assessing service quality. Using a survey approach, SERVQUAL elicits ratings of customers expectations and perceptions on each of the five dimensions described above. Service quality can be also described as closing the gapbetween expectations and perceptions of service. Research has identified four company gapsthat underlie the overall shortfall in customersexpectations/perceptions as developed by Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry.


            In this study of SEVQUAL analysis, 21 questions instead of the original 22 will be used to measure the performance across abovementioned five dimensions, using a five (5) point likert scale measuring both customer expectations and perceptions. After data collection by means of the questionnaires the gap between customer expectations and perceptions will try to be closed.


            The gaps model positions the key concepts, strategies, and decisions in delivering quality service in a manner that begins with the customer and builds the organizations tasks around what is needed to close the gap (see figure 2-2).


            The graph illustrates that the central focus (top half) of the gaps model is the customer gap. To close this all-important customer gap, the model suggests that four other gaps-the provider gaps-need to be closed. The numbering of the gaps from 1 to 5 represents the sequence of steps (i.e., market research, design, conformance, communication, and customer satisfaction) that should be followed in new service process design.


            SERVQUAL Gaps SERVQUAL的差距

            Gap 1: Not Knowing What Customers Expect gap 1 is the difference between customer expectations of service and company particularly management, understanding of those expectations. A number of factors have been shown to be responsible for gap 1. First, because marketing research is a key vehicle for understanding consumer expectations and perception of service, the size of gap 1 depends greatly on the amount of marketing research conducted. A second factor is lack of upward communication. Frontline employees often know a great deal about customers but management may not be in contact with frontline employees and may not understand what they know. A third factor is a lack of company strategies to retain customers and strengthen relationships with them. A finally, inadequate attention to service recovery understanding why people complain and what they expect when they complain and how to develop effective strategies for dealing with inevitable service failures.



            Gap 2: Not Selecting the Right Service Design and Standards a recurring challenge in service companies is the difficulty of translating customersexpectations into service quality specifications. Thus, provider gap 2 reflects the difference between company understanding of customer expectations and development of customer-driven service designs and standards. A number of factors have been shown to be responsible for gap 2. First of all, inadequate commitment to service quality; secondly a perception of unfeasibility, and finally, inadequate task standardization and an absence of goal setting.


            Gap 3: Not Delivering to Service Standards is the difference between development of customer-driven service standards and actual service performance by company employees. Even when guidelines exist for performing services well and treating customers correctly, high quality service performance is not a certainty. Standard must be backed by appropriate resources (people, systems and technology) and also must be enforced to be effective that is, employees must be measured and compensated on the basis of performance along those standards. Thus, even when standards accurately reflect customersexpectations, if the company fails to provide support for them standards do not good. Factors influencing gap 3 are: poor employee-job fit and poor technology fit, inappropriate supervisory control systems, lack of teamwork and perceived control.


            Gap 4: Not Matching Performance to Promises advertising, sales force and other communications set the standard against which customers assess a companys service quality. Ensuring that all the companys external messages are aligned with what the company delivers is more difficult in service because what is delivered critically depends on employeesinteractions with customers. This is also a result of inadequate horizontal communication and propensity to over-promise.


            Gap 5: Not Delivering the Service (perception) as being perceived this is the only gap that can be examined solely on the data from the customer; study of other gaps, while important, would require data collection from companies themselves.


            Recognition of factors, which influence customers expectations, will help the suppliers applying appropriate procedures to modify customers expectations and to provide customers with the service expected (Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011)


            Zeithaml & Parasuraman mentioned 4 factors in shaping customersexpectations:


            Word-of Month: the first factor that potentially determine customersexpectations, is the word he or she heard from other costumers;

            Personal needs: the second factor that to a certain extent modifies customersexpectations is obtained as a result of a particular situations and requirements;

            Prior experience: is the third factor influencing customersexpectations, which indicate the way the customers has experience prior service received;

            Advertisement and Personal experience: the fourth factor playing a key role in shaping customersexpectations is called external customers. These communications contain all direct and indirect messages sent from supplying organization to customers.

            One of the most important factors which of course belong to suppliers external communication collection is service cost of price. This factor plays a significant role in shaping customers expectations and especially those of organization future customers.


            Advantages and Disadvantages of SERVQUAL SERVQUAL的優點和缺點


            In current service literature, there are a number of key instruments available for measuring service quality. Through, the SERVQUAL model has been the major generic model used to measure and manage service quality across different service settings and various cultural backgrounds and is valued by academics and practitioners. Below are some of the main advantages and or reasons to use the SERVQUAL model to measure the level of customer satisfaction with an organization.




            It can be used on a regular basis to track customer perceptions of service quality of a particular firm compared to its competitors. Once data have been analyzed they can be visually presented so that it is easy to identify strengths and weaknesses relative to competition.


            It provides the opportunity for a firm to assess its service quality performance on the basis of each dimension individually as well as the overall dimensions;


            It allow the firm to classify its customers into different segments based on their individual SERVQUAL scores;


            SERVQUAL model can be used in various service setting/sectors and provides a basic skeleton that can be adapted to fit the specific attributes of a particular organization. It is applicable across different empirical context and various countries and cultural backgrounds


            SERVQUAL gap analysis approach seems a logical and straightforward concept and the questionnaire is also pre-described and can be adapted as required;


            Finally, SERVQUAL is a tried and tested instrument which can be used comparatively for benchmarking purposes. It benefit from being a statistically valid instrument as a result of extensive field testing and refinement (Al Bassam & Al Shawi, 2010).


            To appreciate more fully all the benefits of using SERVQUAL surveys should be conducted every year, for the following reasons;


            To allow yearly comparison;

            To determine how service improvements have affected customersperceptions and expectations of the service over time and;

            To determine the effectiveness of service development and improvement initiatives in targeted dimensions.

            Implementing SERVQUAL and measuring customer perception and expectation of service may well result in customer retention, customer loyalty and positive word-of-mouth, increasing opportunity for cross-selling, employee benefits, improved corporate image, profit gains and financial performance. But measuring too often may well result in customers losing their motivation to answer correctly (Shadin, 2006).



            However, apart from its wide use, a number of theoretical and operational criticisms of the measurement model have been pointed out.



            First of all Validity, the validity of the SERVQUAL model as a generic instrument for measuring service quality across different service sector has been raised. And that a simple revision of the SERVQUAL items is not enough for measuring service quality across different service settings;


            Secondly Gaps Model, there is little evidence that customers access service quality in terms of Perception (P) minus Expectation (E) gaps. This because they found that the dominant contributor to the gap score was the perception score because of a generalized response tendency to rate expectations high ;


            Process Orientation, SERVQUAL is process oriented it focus on the process of service delivery, not on the outcomes of the service encounter, while process and outcome together is a better predictor of consumers choice than process or outcome alone;


            In the fourth place Dimensionality, SERVQUAL five dimensions are not universal. Items do not always load on to the factors which one would a priori expect; and there is a high degree of inter correlation between the five dimensions. Meaning that the researcher should have work with the original ten dimensions rather than adopt the revised five;


            Finally Model Objections, SERVQUAL is based on an expectation model rather than an attitudinal model besides SERVQUAL fails to draw on establishing economic and psychological theory (fail to draw on the large literature on the psychology of perception).



            First of all Expectations, The term expectation is polysemic; consumers use standards other than expectations to evaluate service quality;


            Secondly Item Composition, SERVQUAL 4 of 5 items cannot capture the variability or the specific context meaning within each service quality dimension, even though authors acknowledge that context specific items can be used to supplement SERVQUAL, but the newitem should be similar in form to the existing SERVQUAL item;


            In the third place Moment Of Truth (MOT), customers assessment of service quality may vary from MOT to MOT. Services are delivered over several MOT or Encounter between service staff and customers. And evidence shows that customers evaluate service quality by reference to these multiple encounters;


            Polarity, The reversed polarization (rewording) of items in the scale causes respondent error. Of the 22 items of the SERVQUAL questionnaire, 13 statements pairs are positively worded and nine pairs are negatively worded. The negative are the full set of responsiveness and empathy statements. Item wording creates data quality problems and calls into questions the validity of the instrument


            Scale Point: the seven -point Likert scale is flawed. The Likert scale has been criticized on several grounds, although none are specific to SERVQUAL, but has an indirect influence. It has been criticized for its lack of verbal labeling for points two to six. This will cause respondents to overuse the extreme ends of the scale;


            Two administration, two administration of the instrument causes repetitiveness and confusion. Respondents appear to be confused by the two administration of the E and the P versions of the SERVQUAL, which will result in imperil data quality. Besides the timing of the administrations, asking respondents to complete the two questionnaires at the single sitting (Buttle, 2006).


            SERVQUAL Independent Variables SERVQUAL獨立變量

            As already indicated in paragraph 2-1 the SERVQUAL model is constructed based on its initial 10 dimensions (Reliability, Responsiveness, Competence, Access, Courtesy, Communication, Credibility, Security, Understanding/Knowing the customer, and Tangibles)



            Reliability: the ability of an organization to accurately achieve in the proper time and according to the promises tit has made to its clients;

            Responsiveness: the tendency and willingness of services providers to help clients and satisfy their needs, immediately reply to their inquiries and solve their problems as quickly as possible;

            Competence: having adequate skills and knowledge that enable the employees to perform their jobs properly

            Accessibility: providing easy access to a service in term of location and through services provided via the telephone, the internet or any other means of communication;

            Courtesy: treating clients respectfully in a polite friendly manner, understanding their feelings and answering their phone calls gently;

            Communication: this occurs through gentlemanly listening to the client conveying information to them clearly and facilitating external communication with workers;

            Credibility: this can be achieved through full trust and confidence in the service provider as well as his honesty and straight forwardness;

            Security: this depends on whether the service is free from risks and hazards, defects or doubts so that it provides bodily safety, financial security as well as privacy;

            Understanding/knowing the customer: this can be made achievable through the ability to pinpoint the customersneeds as well as understanding their individual problems;

            Tangibility: this includes physical aspects connected with service such as instruments and equipment, persons, physical facilities like buildings and nice decoration and other observable service facilities (Mohammad & Alhamadani, 2011).

            Later these 10 dimensions were merged into five dimensions namely Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy and Responsiveness (see figure 2-3 below).







            Tangibles: Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials. It translate to CSS appearance and conditions of the building interior, (furnitures, equipment) and exterior, uniform of the staff (patrol officers and guards and centralists) companies signs and advertisementsmaterials;

            Reliability: Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately or delivering on its promises. This dimension is critical as all customers want to deal with firms that keep their promises and this is generally implicitly communication to the firmscustomers. For the security industry reliability is interpreted as delivering safety and security immediately as this is required;

            Responsiveness: Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. This dimension is concerned with dealing with the customersrequests, questions and complains promptly and attentively. A firm is consider to be responsive when it communicates to its customers how long it would take to get answers or have their problems dealt with. To be successful companies need to look at responsiveness from the point of view of the customer rather than the companys perspectives;

            Assurance: (including competence, courtesy, credibility and security). Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence (combines original dimensions of competence, courtesy, credibility, and security). Assurance may not be so important relative to other industries where the risk is higher and the outcome of using the service is uncertain (think about for example the medical and healthcare industry);

            Empathy: (including access, communication, understanding the customer). Caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers (Combines original dimensions of access, communication, and understanding the customer). Customers should be treated as they are unique and special. There are several ways that empathy can be provided: knowing the customers name, his preferences and needs. Many small firms use this ability to provide customized services as a competitive advantage over large firms. This dimension is more suitable in industries where building relationships with customers ensures the firms survival. Empathy in security context could mean showing concern in times of service failure and providing service recovery of providing adjustable/suitable (customer specific) services.

            And as can be seen in figure 2-4 below, these 5 dimensions influence the quality of service, but also the service delivery process which consequently influence the level of customer satisfaction. These 5 variables are the independent variables, while the quality of service, the service delivery process and the level of customer satisfaction are the dependent ones.


            SERVQUAL Dependent Variables SERVQUAL因變量

            Service Quality

            Quality is such an important issue that it is a really significant concept in our real life. Quality comes from the Latin word Qualitaswhich refers to the nature of a person or the nature of an object. It is regarded as a strategic organizational weapon. And the pressing need of developing service organizations and upgrading their services necessitates the measuring of service quality. Service Quality is an approach to manage business in order to ensure full satisfaction of the customers which will help to increase competiveness and effectiveness of the industry. Quality in service is very important especially for the growth and development of service sector business enterprise, resulting into customer satisfaction (Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011). With the increase of the importance of service sector in the economy worldwide including Curacao which primary source of income is the service sector, the measurement of service quality becomes more important. Different strategies are formulated to retain the customer and the key of it is to increase the service quality level. Parasuraman and Zeithaml noted that that the key strategy for the success and survival of any business institution is the deliverance of quality services to customers. The quality of service offered will determine customers satisfaction and attitudinal loyalty. Companys competiveness in this post-liberalized era is determined by the way it delivers service. But service quality is a concept that has risen based on the abovementioned considerable interest and debate because of the difficulties in both defining it and measuring it. Firms with high service quality pose a challenge to other firms. Again service quality considered as the difference between customersexpectations of service and perceived service. If expectations are greater than performance, then perceived quality is less than satisfactory and hence customers dissatisfaction occurs (Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011).


            質量是一個非常重要的問題,它在我們的現實生活中是一個非常重要的概念。質量這個詞來自拉丁語Qualitas”,指的是一個人或一個物體的性質。它被認為是一種戰略組織武器。服務機構發展和服務升級的迫切需要對服務質量進行度量。服務質量是一種管理業務的方法,以確??蛻舻某浞譂M意,這將有助于提高行業的競爭力和效益。服務質量是非常重要的,特別是對于服務業企業的成長和發展,從而導致客戶滿意度(Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011)。隨著服務業在全球經濟中重要性的增加,包括庫拉索島,其主要收入來源是服務業,對服務質量的衡量變得越來越重要。為了留住客戶,制定了不同的策略,關鍵是提高服務質量水平。ParasuramanZeithaml指出,任何商業機構成功和生存的關鍵戰略是為客戶提供優質服務。所提供的服務質量將決定顧客的滿意度和態度忠誠。在這個后自由化時代,公司的競爭力取決于它提供服務的方式。但是,服務質量是一個基于上述相當大的興趣和爭論而產生的概念,因為在定義和衡量它方面都存在困難。高服務質量的公司對其他公司構成了挑戰。再一次,服務質量被認為是顧客對服務的期望和感知服務之間的差異。如果期望大于性能,那么感知質量是不滿意的,因此客戶的不滿意發生(Rahaman, Abdullah & Rahman, 2011)。


            Service Delivery Process 服務交付過程

            Each and every company who strives to achieve a higher level of customer satisfaction introduces a service delivery process in order to verify if the service is delivered according to those descriptions, this can also be seen on figure 2-4. Thus, any study of the efficiency of service organizations must focus on the role of process design and performance. CSS has also such service delivery procedures and guidelines alarm-opvolgingprocedure. The design and implementation of service delivery processes plays a key role in the overall competitiveness of modern organizations provide clear evidence that process capability and execution are major drivers of performance due to their impact on customer satisfaction and service quality. Traditional efficiency studies measure the performance of a firm by its ability to transform inputs into outputs. However, the actual way in which these inputs are transformed to outputs is often overlooked. That is, each firms operation is conceptualized as a black box: inputs go in and outputs come out; and little analytical attention is paid to the inner workings of the transformation process. Researches argue that the actual design of the transformation process is a critical component in the performance of a firm. The service delivery process should describe how process capabilities and people impact business performance. Their work provides the framework from which we are able to talk about how much inefficiency in process performance is due to the wrong design and how much is due to poor performance. Further the design of the transformation mechanism, or the process design, must be fully studied and integrated into performance analysis in order to provide useful managerial recommendations and achieve a higher level of satisfaction (Frei & Harker, 2008).

            每一個努力達到更高客戶滿意度的公司都引入了一個服務交付過程,以驗證服務是否按照這些描述交付,這也可以在圖2-4中看到。因此,任何對服務組織效率的研究都必須關注過程設計和性能的作用。CSS也有這樣的服務交付程序和指南“警報-請求”程序。服務交付過程的設計和實施在現代組織的整體競爭力中扮演著關鍵的角色,提供了清晰的證據,過程能力和執行是績效的主要驅動因素,因為它們對顧客滿意度和服務質量的影響。傳統的效率研究通過企業將投入轉化為產出的能力來衡量企業的績效。然而,這些投入轉化為產出的實際方式常常被忽視。也就是說,每個公司的運作都被概念化為一個黑盒子:輸入輸入輸出輸出;而且很少對轉換過程的內部工作進行分析。研究認為,轉型過程的實際設計是企業績效的一個關鍵組成部分。服務交付流程應該描述流程功能和人員如何影響業務性能。他們的工作提供了一個框架,通過這個框架,我們可以討論流程性能的低效率有多少是由于錯誤的設計造成的,有多少是由于糟糕的性能造成的。進一步,必須充分研究轉型機制的設計,或過程設計,并將其整合到績效分析中,以便提供有用的管理建議,實現更高水平的滿意度(Frei & Harker, 2008)。


            Customer Satisfaction

            Satisfaction became a popular topic in marketing during the 1980s and is a debate topic during both business expansions and recessions. Most discussions on customer satisfaction involve customer expectations of the service delivery, actual delivery of the customer experience. But also in this intense competition, the key to sustainable competitive advantages lies in delivering high quality of service that will also turn in customer satisfaction (Mohammad & Alhamadani, 2011). Mixed findings exist regarding the casual direction between service quality and satisfaction. Does customer satisfaction lead to service quality or vise verse. Recent studies have characterized service quality perceptions as an outcome of satisfaction. Customers can evaluate a service (be satisfied or dissatisfied) only after they perceive it. Many authors who studied the relationship between these two variables have shown that service quality determines customer satisfaction (Culiberg & Roj??ek, 2010).So can be concluded and what can also be seen in figure 2-4, Service Quality and Service Delivery process both influence the extent of customer satisfaction. Firms that provide superior quality of service have a more satisfied customer base. But also authors report that continuous improvement of service operations in which the actual services experience is assessed (Mohammad & Alhamadani, 2011).


            Conclusion 結論

            Based on the information indicated in this chapter can be concluded that Customer demand and preferences of different products and services is a subject of concern for many business areas including the security service industries. However customerspreferences and choices are not similar from one customer to another. These differences make it hard for the security service industries as for other businesses to meet diverse demands. Thus, the knowledge of customerspreferences and their choices of products and/or services provided by the companies is one of the most significant characteristic for meeting customersdemands. Based on the Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry the SERVQUAL model, customers access service quality along 5 dimensions: Assurance, Empathy, Reliability, Responsiveness and Tangibles. SERVQUAL is the dominant approach to quantitatively assessing service quality, using a survey approach. And based on customers rating (from a scale of 1 to 5) of expectations and perceptions on these 5 dimensions, companies can calculate the extent of satisfaction of the customers with the services provided. Service quality can be also described as closing the gapbetween expectations and perceptions of service This gaps include; Gap 1: Not Knowing What Customers Expect, Gap 2: Not Selecting the Right Service Design and Standards, Gap 3: Not Delivering to Service Standards, Gap 4: Not Matching Performance to Promises, Gap 5: Not delivering the service as being perceived.

            根據本章所述的信息可以得出結論,客戶對不同產品和服務的需求和偏好是包括保安服務行業在內的許多業務領域所關注的主題。然而,顧客的偏好和選擇是不同的。這些差異使得保安服務行業和其他行業一樣難以滿足多樣化的需求。因此,了解客戶的偏好以及他們對公司提供的產品和/或服務的選擇是滿足客戶需求的最重要的特征之一?;?/span>Parasuraman、Zeithaml & BerrySERVQUAL模型,客戶通過5個維度獲得服務質量:保證、同理心、可靠性、響應性和有形物。SERVQUAL是使用調查方法定量評估服務質量的主要方法。根據顧客對這五個維度的期望和感知的評分(15),公司可以計算出顧客對所提供服務的滿意度。服務質量也可以被描述為“縮小服務期望和感知之間的差距”。差距1:不知道客戶的期望,差距2:沒有選擇合適的服務設計和標準,差距3:沒有達到服務標準,差距4:沒有實現承諾,差距5:沒有提供被感知的服務。


            But all models have their advantages and disadvantages including the SERVQUAL model. Among others SEVQUAL offers the following benefits, it can be used on regular basis, it allow firms to classify its customers into different segments, access companies service quality on basis each dimension individually, it can be used in different service sectors and it provide a basic skeleton in order to be adapted for a particular organization., it can be used for various countries and cultural backgrounds, its a logical and straightforward concept and the questionnaire is pre-described but also its a tested instrument which can be used for benchmarking purposes


            Some criticisms have also been send in the direction of the model which are divided in theoretical and operational ones.


            Furthermore can be concluded that the SERVQUAL model consist of dependent and independent variable. SERVQUAL independent variables are Tangibility, Assurance, Empathy, Reliability and Responsiveness. These 5 dimensions influence the quality of service, but also the service delivery process which consequently influence the level of customer satisfaction. These 5 variables are the independent variables, while the quality of service, the service delivery process and the level of customer satisfaction are the dependent ones and are influences by the level/extent of these 5 dimensions related to the organization.





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