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      歷史Essay模板:Is Canada A Peace Keeping Country History Essay

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-02-24 11:34:36 來源:www.orient-thai.net 作者:留學作業網

      本文是歷史專業的留學生Essay范例,題目是“Is Canada A Peace Keeping Country History Essay(加拿大是一個維持和平的國家嗎)”,加拿大主張并被認為是世界上最好的維持和平國家之一。實際上,加拿大一直是世界維持和平特派團的最重要貢獻者之一。在觀察團和維持和平部隊方面,特別是在觀察團方面,加拿大為這些特派團提供了許多部隊。

      Canada claims and is thought to be one of the best peace-keeping countries in the world. Actually, Canada has been one of the most important contributors to the peacekeeping missions of the world. Both in observer missions and peacekeeping forces, especially in observer missions, Canada has contributed a lot of forces to these missions.

       

      However, the peacekeeping tradition and gentle image of Canada, which is recognized by the world people, began to change, especially under the governance of the Conservative Party. Some military events in recent years and some statements of Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper in public suggest that Canadian troops are changing from the peacekeeping role to the role of combat (Bouldin, 2003). Meanwhile, Canada is gradually losing the image of peace and neutrality in international operations. In this paper, some specific events, arguments and policies demonstrate how Canadian peacekeeping activities are starting to become less about peacekeeping and more about war-fighting. And also, the team of Canadian task is becoming peace support operationsinstead of the former team, peacekeeping(Dorn, 2005). Peacekeepingrole of the Canadian forces is already a thing of the history.

       歷史Essay范例

      2.0 Arguments about the role Canada plays in Peacekeeping關于加拿大在維和行動中所扮演角色的爭論

      2.1 Canadas contribution to peacekeeping missions

      Canada is indeed a peacekeeping country in the world. Canada is one of the participants who create the United Nations, which has taken part in many peacekeeping missions in many years. For example, as a member of the United Nations Emergency Force, the first deployment of Canadian Forces operations promoted the satisfactory solution of the Suez Crisis, which broke out in 1956 and Pearson was given the Nobel Peace Prize for the operation in 1957. And then in the Congo Crisis in July 1960, in order to solve the rebellion of Congolese army and police forces and restore the local peace and order, Canadas first peacekeeping force arrived in this area in August 19. And then some other signal soldiers and a large amount of food also arrived there. In 1973, Canadas main task is to provide support for the UNEF II, which has deployed to the Middle East. In this peacekeeping operation, Canada sent more than 1145 soldiers to participate in the peacekeeping operation (Chapnick, 2010). In 1957, Canada received the Nobel Peace Prize for its international peacekeeping activities. And then in the same year, a monument was claimed to be erected in the capital city, Ottawa. From 1948 to 1990, Canada has participated in 17 peacekeeping operations, including nine observer missions and eight peacekeeping forces, which is the leading one among those peacekeepers (Neack, 1995). Canada contributed over 80,000 people to take peacekeeping tasks to the appeal of the UN (Gough, 2002). In these tasks, many younger soldiers suffer from musculoskeletal diseases and 69% of these cases are sub acute and chronic (Hebert, 2007). In those years, Canada can be seen as the best peacekeeping country and the undisputed leader of the world.

      2.1加拿大對維持和平特派團的貢獻

      加拿大確實是世界上一個維持和平的國家。加拿大是創建聯合國的參與者之一,聯合國多年來參加了許多維持和平任務。例如,作為聯合國緊急部隊的一員,加拿大部隊的第一次部署行動促進了1956年蘇伊士危機的圓滿解決,皮爾遜因1957年的行動而獲得諾貝爾和平獎。然后在19607月的剛果危機中,為了解決剛果軍隊和警察部隊的叛亂,恢復當地的和平與秩序,加拿大的第一支維和部隊于819日抵達該地區。然后一些其他的信號兵和大量的食物也到達那里。1973年,加拿大的主要任務是向部署在中東的第二期聯合國兒童基金提供支助。在此次維和行動中,加拿大派出1145多名士兵參加維和行動(Chapnick, 2010)。1957年,加拿大因其國際維和行動獲得諾貝爾和平獎。同年,據說在首都渥太華豎立了一座紀念碑。1948年至1990年,加拿大參加了17項維持和平行動,其中包括9個觀察團和8個維持和平部隊,這是維和人員中的領先者(Neack, 1995)。加拿大應聯合國的呼吁捐助了8萬多人執行維和任務(Gough, 2002)。在這些任務中,許多年輕士兵患有肌肉骨骼疾病,其中69%為亞急性和慢性(Hebert, 2007)。在那些年里,加拿大可以被看作是最好的維和國家和無可爭議的世界領導者。

       

      2.2 The reduction of assistant for other countries

      However, Canadas peacekeeping performance is no longer so active. Instead of helping all the countries which need help, Canada just helps some of the countries selectively. In addition, the peacekeeping troop of Canada is reducing. Some data will be used to confirm it.

       

      Early in 2002, Canada was assumed among the top 10 nations as a peacekeeper. At that time, Canada citizens were proud of there peacekeeping forces and the international image of peacekeeping angle. However, it is revealed that Canada has slipped to 38th among the peacekeepers. In the peacekeeping mission in Haiti in 2004, 726 Canadian personnel were on international peacekeeping missions. At the same time, Brazil had committed 1,351 troops, Germany 3,306, India 2,928, South Africa 2,365 and Uruguay 1,908 (Ram, 2004). It can be seen that the number of Canadian force is reducing and Canada is no longer the peacekeeping leader in the world.

      2002年初,加拿大被認為是十大維和國家之一。當時,加拿大民眾為自己的維和部隊和維和角度的國際形象感到自豪。然而,據透露,加拿大在維和部隊中已跌至第38位。2004年,在海地維和特派團中,726名加拿大人員參加了國際維和任務。與此同時,巴西派遣了1351名士兵,德國3306名,印度2928名,南非2365名,烏拉圭1908(Ram, 2004)??梢钥闯?,加拿大部隊的數量正在減少,加拿大不再是世界上維和的領導者。

       

      2.3 More combat activities

      In 2001, Canada took part in the task of Afghanistan. The word, peacekeeping, was repeatedly used to describe Canadians participation in the mission. However, Canadians involvement in the mission has nothing to do with peacekeeping. While those forces are flying the flag of the UN, what they have done was to occupy that country, which violated international law and the UNs principle of international missions. It can be seen clearly, Canada began to take part in aggressive combat actions.

       

      In recent years, Canadas military operations are inconsistent with its peacekeeping leaderrole. In October 2007, 173 individuals take part in the peacekeeping operations led by the UN, of which 58individuals are Canadian (Rudderham, 2008). And the number is Canadas lowest one in history since 1956. And also, in the Department of Peacekeeping Operations in New York, there are neither police officers nor military commanders, who are Canadian. However, at the same time, as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Canada contributed 2774 individuals to the Afghanistan operation led by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Rudderham, 2008). The operations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization have been allowed by the UN. But the military actions led by NATO and the UN are totally different. Some actions of NATO are combating and aggressive.

      近年來,加拿大的軍事行動與其“維和領導人”角色不符。200710月,有173人參加了聯合國領導的維和行動,其中58人是加拿大人(Rudderham, 2008)。這是加拿大自1956年以來的最低記錄。此外,在紐約的維持和平行動部,既沒有加拿大警官,也沒有加拿大軍事指揮官。然而,與此同時,作為北大西洋公約組織的成員,加拿大向北大西洋公約組織領導的阿富汗行動貢獻了2774(Rudderham, 2008)。北大西洋公約組織的行動得到了聯合國的允許。但北約和聯合國的軍事行動是完全不同的。北約的一些行動具有戰斗性和侵略性。

       

      2.4 Following the policy actions of the United States

      What is more, in recent years, Canada is more and more following the policy actions of the United States, especially since Stephen Harpers charge. In some extent, this can be contributed to Americans dominant policy toward Canada in the aftermath of the Second World War, which makes Canadas independent voice weaker gradually. In this section, some of Canadas performances will be utilized to prove the point.

       

      In the Vietnam War of 1964, Canada began to compromise the United States. The goal of Canadas activities in International Management Committee changed from peacekeeping to negotiations (Brian, Mandell, 1996). As President Johnson gave up his presidential campaign since he didnt enjoy popular support in America for his policy toward the Vietnam War, one of the reasons for Prime Minister Pearsons stepping down is the Vietnam policy of Pearson. Even some historians said that Prime Minister Pearson was defeated by the Vietnam War.

       

      As a member country of Indo-Chinese International Monitoring Committee, Canada has asked for several times to quit. But it stayed there always. In the Vietnam War, Canadas weak voice for peace plan was drowned by the roar of explosion. At that time, the United States told Canada that it would be a heavy blow to Americans hopes for peace if Canada withdraws the International Monitoring Committee. On May 25 of 1973, Henry Alfred Kissinger called to Ottawa to ask Canada to stay in the International Monitoring Committee. Although Canada has totally decided to quit, Kissinger inform the world ultimately: Canada would withdraw its delegation on July 31, instead of June 30 (Thakur, 1980).

      作為印度支那國際監督委員會成員國,加拿大已多次提出退出要求。但它一直在那里。在越南戰爭中,加拿大微弱的和平呼聲被轟鳴的爆炸聲所淹沒。當時,美國告訴加拿大,如果加拿大撤走國際監督委員會,將是對美國和平希望的沉重打擊。1973525日,亨利·艾爾弗雷德·基辛格致電渥太華,請求加拿大留在國際監督委員會。雖然加拿大已經完全決定退出,但基辛格最終告訴世界:加拿大將在731日撤回其代表團,而不是630(Thakur, 1980)。

       歷史Essay怎么寫

      The government of Canada and its participation in the International Monitoring Committee has been faced with a dilemma. On the one hand, Canada has the good willing and actions to supervise the Indochina peace. On the other hand, Canada has to be utilized by the United States, which makes its hope for peacekeeping yield to benefits of the United States. As the middlemanrole, Canada often inquired the intelligence of North Vietnam. The Vietnam War developed into the directly military intervention of the United States. At that time, Canadas disagreement about the war made the relationship between Canada and the United States strained. However, due to the special relationship between the two countries, Canada showed some compassion to America while it is supervising America, which made Canada a thankless task.

       

      Canadas behavior to participate in the International Management Committee and the International Monitoring Committee was not so active and voluntary. The reason is mainly that Canada is not willing to offend the United States and it also wants to maintain and develop its international influence and prestige. For the first time, Canada helps the United States save the Saigon regime and expand the Vietnam War. And for the second time, Canada helps the United States withdraw from Vietnam in a decent way.

      加拿大參與國際管理委員會和國際監督委員會的行為并不那么積極和自愿。究其原因,主要是加拿大不愿得罪美國,同時也希望保持和發展自己的國際影響力和威望。加拿大第一次幫助美國拯救了西貢政權,并擴大了越南戰爭。這是加拿大第二次幫助美國體面地從越南撤軍。

       

      Until 1967, Canada has spent 13years on the position of the International Management Committee. During the period, it is a pleader at the best time and an accomplice at the worst time. Whether at the best time or at the worst time, Canadas behavior has no effect on the peace (Thakur, 1980). Canadas action is not only due to the pressure from the United States, but also to self-interest factors.

       

      Therefore, in many occasions or events, Canada can not get rid of the image of the complicity of the United States. In dealing with the issue of the Vietnam War, Canada and the United States always have frictions, which are only about the means, not the purpose. Canada hastily accepted the Domino effect of Eisenhower, which ties Canada to the global hegemony policy of the United States and makes Canada lose the opportunity to act independently in international affairs. Canada is always courteous but without sincerity while the United States repeatedly shows stubborn. In the Vietnam War, although Canada is not as hard as in the Korean War, Canada expresses resignation and even compliance towards the behaviors of the United States.

      因此,在許多場合或事件中,加拿大無法擺脫美國的共謀形象。在處理越南戰爭問題上,加拿大和美國總是有摩擦,這只是在手段上,而不是目的上。加拿大倉促接受艾森豪威爾的多米諾效應,將加拿大與美國的全球霸權政策聯系在一起,失去了在國際事務中獨立行事的機會。加拿大總是彬彬有禮而不真誠,而美國則一再表現出固執。在越南戰爭中,加拿大雖然沒有朝鮮戰爭中那么強硬,但對美國的行為表現出了順從甚至服從。

       

      Canada is willing to be the loyal follower of America, which means that Canada is more of a fighter, not a peacekeeper. In 2006, after the Middle East conflict, the conflict between Lebanon and Israel, the newly appointed Prime Minister of Canada, Stephen Harper claimed that Israeli soldiers should take responsibility for the increasing armed conflicts, which is in conformity with Bushs attitude.

       

      3.0 Recommendations on policies in Peacekeeping3.維持和平政策建議

      The UN wants to build up a neutral military to promote the resolution of international conflict (Neack, 1995). So as a participating country in peacekeeping missions and the leader peacekeeper, Canada should take in those peacekeeping missions with relentless pursuit without concerning individual interest or other intentions. Canada should develop its tradition of loving peace and fulfill the obligations of a peacekeeping country, which is the only way to maintain Canadas international image of friendly and peaceful country.

      聯合國希望建立一個中立的軍隊來促進國際沖突的解決(Neack, 1995)。因此,加拿大作為維和行動的參加國和維和行動的領先者,應不顧個人利益和其他意圖,堅持不懈地參與維和行動。只有發揚熱愛和平的傳統,履行好作為維和國家的義務,才能維護加拿大友好、和平的國際形象。

       

      3.1 Domestic policy

      In the aspect of domestic policy, Canada should pay more attention to livelihood issues, the security of citizens and firm its committed attitude toward peacekeeping. And also, Canada should recognize that Canadian people are continuously supporting the military forces to maintain the peace of the world, not for other intentions (Donais, 2004). If Canada forces pursuit just self-interest and short-term interest or do some combat operations in the peacekeeping missions, Canadian citizens will be disappointed and feel embarrassed about the peacekeeping leaderlabel of Canada. Canada must strengthen its attitude towards the peacekeeping program and express its firm decision to its citizens. Then Canada citizens can live in a steady and pleasant country and they can still be pride of the international image of friendly and peacekeeping country.

       

      3.2 Foreign policy

      On the other hand, in the aspect of foreign policy, Canada should maintain its international image of peacekeeping country and take part in peacekeeping missions actively. The benefits Canada can get from the continuous peacekeeping activities can be analyzed from two aspects. Firstly, Canada can continue its contributions to world service, especially in world peace and security, which show most Canadiansstrong desire for a peace world based on law and order instead of war-fighting (Dorn, 2005). Secondly, Canada lies next to the United States, which is powerful. Since America pay much attention to military force, Canada can build up its own feature and special image by taking part in peacekeeping activities. In addition, the United States is Canadas most important neighbor and the two countries maintain a close relationship with each other in the aspects of politic, economy and other fields. Successive governments of Canada take the relationship between Canada and the United States seriously as the cornerstone of its foreign policy. In general, Canada should maintain its close relationship with the United States. At the same time, Canada should emphasize its independence. In addition, Canada should stick to its neutral position and peace principle in any peacekeeping mission.

      另一方面,在外交政策方面,加拿大應維護其維和國家的國際形象,積極參與維和行動。加拿大從持續的維和行動中得到的好處可以從兩個方面來分析。首先,加拿大可以繼續為世界服務做出貢獻,特別是在世界和平與安全方面,這表明大多數加拿大人強烈希望建立一個以法律和秩序為基礎的和平世界,而不是戰爭(Dorn, 2005)。其次,加拿大毗鄰強大的美國。由于美國對軍事力量的重視,加拿大可以通過參與維和活動來建立自己的特色和特殊形象。此外,美國是加拿大最重要的鄰國,兩國在政治、經濟等領域保持著密切的關系。加拿大歷屆政府都把加拿大與美國的關系作為其外交政策的基石??偟膩碚f,加拿大應該與美國保持密切的關系。與此同時,加拿大應強調其獨立性。此外,加拿大在任何維和行動中都應堅持其中立立場和和平原則。

       

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