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      心理學Essay作業:The Behaviour of Split Brain Patients

      論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-04-22 13:07:58 來源:www.orient-thai.net 作者:留學作業網

      本文是心理學專業的Essay范例,題目是“The Behaviour of Split Brain Patients(裂腦病人的行為)”,腦裂病人是用于人的教派的胼胝體切斷手術減少癲癇發作藥物棘手的(弗雷伯格,2010)和多焦點的癲癇(卡拉特,2013),切開的是這個操作的名字,這是一個非常罕見的技術和一些病人只有部分分裂(可能性,華生,& Rosenzweig, 2010)。胼胝體是拉丁詞,意思是增厚的皮膚,由蓋倫在二世紀描述;它是人類大腦中連接兩個半球的最大的白色軸突束,commissures一詞是由Felix Vicq d 'Azyr提出的,用來表示纖維路徑,他認為胼胝體是由神經組成的。美國的Walter Dandy在1930年切除了胼胝體,以便更好地接觸腦腫瘤,這導致了胼胝體研究的新開端,因為患者沒有表現出任何精神、運動或智力異常。(Wickens, 2009)然而,大多數裂腦病例研究是由Joseph Bogen在20世紀60年代進行的。(弗雷伯格,2010)

      Split-brain patient is a denomination used for people who had the corpus callosum severed by surgery to minimise the seizures of a medicine intractable (Freberg, 2010) and multifocal epilepsy (Kalat, 2013), commissurotomy is the name of this operation and it is a very rare technique and some patients only had partial split (Breedlove, Watson, & Rosenzweig, 2010). The corpus callosum is a Latin word means thickened skin, described by Galen in the second century; it is the largest white bundle of axons in the human brain that communicates the two hemispheres, the term commissures was introduced by Felix Vicq d’Azyr to indicate the fibre pathways as he understood that the corpus callosum was constituted of nerves. The American Walter Dandy who cut the corpus callosum in the 1930 to have better access to brain tumours led to a new start on an investigation of the corpus callosum as the patients did not show any mental, motor or intellectual anomalies. (Wickens, 2009) However, most of the split-brain case studies were performed by Joseph Bogen in the 1960s. (Freberg, 2010)

       

      心理學Essay范例

      The early studies of split-brain patients were started in the 1960s by the winner of the Nobel Prize in 1981 Roger Sperry and his student Michel Gazzaniga. Roger Sperry first study was in cats that had the corpus callosum and the optic chiasm sectioned, and he discovered that each hemisphere was unaware of what the other learned. (Sperry, Stamm, & Miner, 1956) He used the behaviour techniques of the split-brain cats to research split-brain humans. The outcome of these studies reveals that the brain functions are lateralised.

      對裂腦病的早期研究始于20世紀60年代,由1981年諾貝爾獎得主羅杰·斯佩里(Roger Sperry)和他的學生米歇爾·加扎尼加(Michel Gazzaniga)發起。羅杰·斯佩里的第一個研究是在有胼胝體和視交叉部分的貓身上進行的,他發現兩個半球都不知道另一個半球知道什么。(Sperry, Stamm, & Miner, 1956)他用裂腦貓的行為技術來研究裂腦人。這些研究的結果表明,大腦功能是側化的。

      The major discoveries of the split-brain patients were the lateralisation of function, cross-cueing; and the concept of the interpreter; leading to the theory of a modularized brain.

      裂腦病患者的主要發現是功能的側化,交叉提示;還有解釋者的概念;這就引出了大腦模塊化的理論。

      The lateralisation theory which means cerebral hemispheric specialisation in cognitive, perceptual, emotional and motor activities began with the early studies of split-brain patients, the results showed that the left hemisphere is superior on speech and language and the right hemisphere is superior on visualmotor skills, for instance being able to draw three-dimensional objects. One of the case studies, D.R., a split-brain patient, was instructed to look at a dot in the middle of the screen, to prevent the eyes to move. On the left side of the dot appears a word and on the right side appears another word, when the participant was asked what she saw, she responded that she saw the word on the right side of the visual field, however when they were asked to point at the word with their left hand they pointed at the left side word of the visual field. The results prove that the hemisphere were incapable to communicate with each other , the visual and tactile information did not travel between the hemispheres and it showed that the language is superior in the left hemisphere in most of the people, and that the left hand is controlled by the right hemisphere. (Gazzaniga M. S., The split brain in man, 1967) D.R. was also tested her motor control, the starting position was to her hold out her two hand fist closed, he asked her to do a hitchhiker gesture with her right hand and then with her left hand, she accomplished the task quickly, on the other hand, when Gazzaniga asked her to do the same with her left hand first, she was unable to do it. It showed that the patient had cross-cueing information outside the disconnection of the corpus callosum. Thus, the experiment continued and she was asked to close her eyes and make the same gesture with her right hand which she did easily, then she was asked to do the same with her left hand, which she was unable to do. Since the patient had her eyes closed, the right hemisphere was unable to cue the gesture and unable to understand the spoken instruction, the left hand was left inactive. This experiment revels not only the disconnection of each hemisphere but also how the brain can reach a unique result from a modular brain with several decision centres. (Gazzaniga 1985, 2011 cited in Gazzaniga M. S., 2013)

      側化理論是指大腦半球專門負責認知,感知,情感和運動活動,這一理論始于早期對裂腦病人的研究,結果表明左半球在語言和語言方面更占優勢,而右半球在視覺運動技能方面更占優勢,例如,能夠畫三維物體。其中一個案例研究,dr,一個裂腦病人,被要求看著屏幕中間的一個點,以防止眼睛移動。左邊的點右邊出現一個詞,出現另一個詞,當參與者被問及她看到時,她回答說,她看到這個詞在右邊的視覺領域,然而,當他們被要求點這個詞與他們的左手指著左邊的視野。結果證明半球無法相互通信,視覺和觸覺信息沒有半球之間的旅行,它表明,語言優越的大多數人的左半球,而左手是由右腦控制的。Gazzaniga (m . S。分割大腦在人,1967年)湄也考驗她的運動控制,起始位置是她伸出兩只手的拳頭關閉,他要求她做一個搭便車的姿態與她的右手,然后用她的左手,她很快完成了任務,另一方面,當加扎尼加讓她先用左手做同樣的動作時,她做不到。這表明病人在胼胝體斷開的地方有交叉線索信息。于是,實驗繼續進行,她被要求閉上眼睛,用右手做同樣的動作,這是她很容易做到的,然后她被要求用左手做同樣的動作,這是她做不到的。由于病人的眼睛是閉著的,右半球無法提示手勢,也無法理解口頭指令,所以左手就不活動了。這個實驗不僅揭示了大腦半球之間的聯系,也揭示了大腦是如何從一個有幾個決策中心的模塊大腦中得出一個獨特的結果的。

      Cross-cueing suggests the communication between the two hemispheres via nonneural route. N.G. was another case study of split-brain patient that collaborate with the understanding of the cognitive and emotional cueing. In this test colour light was shown and she needed to say the right colour of the light. When the light green appears on her right visual field which is projected to the left hemisphere, she namely the colour quickly, when the light appears on the left visual field, which is projected on the right hemisphere, she said for instance green and the light was green, then nothing changed. Although, after a few errors on the left visual field, the patient started to use another approach, if the red light was shown and she started saying “green”, she stopped and said red. In this case, very quickly the right hemisphere knows the right colour and heard the wrong one, it gave a cue to the left hemisphere to not say the wrong word by stopped the speech process, or it has shaken the head, shrugged the shoulders or another cue. (Gazzaniga M. S., 2013) Another case was that the patient need to say numbers instead of coloured lights, the same principle was used, and it was expected that the patient respond quicklforonumberer of the right visual field, which happened, however the numbers showed on the left visual field was correct as well, the reaction time wadifferently as was not about the same, 1 was quicker than 2, which was quicker than 3 and so on until 9. It was discovered another cross-cueing technique, the right hemisphere was counting using a head bob when it stop it is the number that appeared and the left hemisphere spoke. (Gazzaniga & Hillyard, Language and speech capacity of the right hemisphere., 1971)

      交叉暗示暗示了兩個半球之間通過非神經途徑的交流。N.G.是裂腦病患者合作理解認知和情緒暗示的另一個案例研究。在這個測試中顯示了顏色,她需要說出正確的顏色。亮綠色時出現在她的視野將左腦,她很快即色彩,當光出現在左視野,投射在右半腦,她說比如綠色和光線是綠色,然后并沒有什么改變。雖然,在左視野出現一些錯誤后,患者開始使用另一種方法,如果紅燈出現,她開始說“綠色”,她會停下來說紅色。在這種情況下,右腦很快就知道了正確的顏色,聽到了錯誤的顏色,它給了左腦一個提示,讓它不要說錯誤的詞,通過停止說話過程,或者搖個頭,聳肩或其他提示。(Gazzaniga m . S, 2013)另一個例子是,病人需要說數字,而不是彩色燈光,同樣的原則,這是預期,病人反應quicklforonumberer視野,發生,然而左邊的數字顯示視野是正確的,反應時間不一樣,1比2快,2比3快,以此類推,直到9。人們還發現了另一種交叉提示技術,右半球通過點頭計數,當停止計數時,數字出現了,左半球說話了。(Gazzaniga & Hillyard,右半球的語言和言語能力。, 1971)

      The concept of interpreter perhaps was the most imperative discovery of all of split-brain research, which shows that we create a story to explain our behaviours and feelings to ourselves. (Gazzaniga M. S., 2013) After 25 years of research, Michael Gazzaniga and Joseph LeDoux decide to change the question that they asked to a split-brain patient, instead of asking what they see, they asked why they choose that picture. P.S. was a patient with all lateralise phenomena which had been discovered on early studies, the experiment comprised in a multiple-choice option for each hand, to choose a picture that matched to the stimulus presented in the left visual field for the right hand; and the right visual field for the left hand. His left hemisphere saw a picture of a chicken claw and his right hand chose a picture of a chicken; his right hemisphere saw a picture of a snow scene and his left hand chose a picture of a shovel. When he was asked why he chose all this picture he said: “The chicken claw goes with the chicken, and you need a shovel to clean out the chicken shed”, which showed the interpreter.

      解釋器的概念可能是所有裂腦研究中最重要的發現,它表明我們創造一個故事來解釋我們自己的行為和感覺。(加扎尼加m.s ., 2013)經過25年的研究,邁克爾·加扎尼加(Michael Gazzaniga)和約瑟夫·勒杜(Joseph LeDoux)決定改變他們向裂腦病患者提出的問題,不再問他們看到了什么,而是問他們為什么選擇了那張照片。P.S.是一個患有所有側化現象的病人,這是在早期研究中發現的,實驗包括了每只手的多項選擇選項,為右手選擇與左視野中呈現的刺激相匹配的圖片;左手的右視野。他的左腦半球看到的是雞爪的圖片,而他的右手選擇的是雞的圖片;他的右半球看到的圖片是雪景,他的左手選擇的圖片是鏟子。當被問及為什么選擇這幅畫時,他說:“雞爪和雞搭配在一起,你需要一把鏟子來清理雞棚?!?

       

      心理學Essay如何寫

      Gazzaniga stated that our brain function in a modular way, and we can achieve a desired behaviour or a goal somehow from “a highly modularized brain with multiple decision centers, not just one” (Gazzaniga M. , 1985, 2011) The case of P.S. which was cited above is a dramatic evidence of brain modularity. She showed that the right hemisphere was able to speak as the left hemisphere after two years of her surgery, which had been started simple and have been increased over the time. Despite being segregated and independent modules, they create a unitary speech behaviour by self-cuing to appear coherent, which provide evidence how the entire system works. (Gazzaniga M. S., 2013)

      Gazzaniga表示,我們的大腦功能模塊化的方式,我們可以實現所需的行為或一個目標在某種程度上從“一個高度模塊化的大腦與多個決策中心,不僅僅是一個“(Gazzaniga m、1985、2011)注:這是上面所提到的情況是一個戲劇性的大腦模塊化的證據。經過兩年的手術,她的右半球已經能夠像左半球一樣說話了。盡管它們被隔離和獨立的模塊,但它們通過自我暗示來表現出連貫,從而創造出一種統一的語言行為,這為整個系統如何工作提供了證據。(加扎尼加m.s., 2013)

      In conclusion, the experiments on split-brain patients still result in new discoveries of the brain functions. In the past 50 years split-brain patients have been tested and observed adding to science a new perspective of the brain. The lateralisation theory was one of the first discoveries before the technology of PET scan, fMRI and etc. arrived. The cross-cueing was another great discovery as not only shows the role of the corpus callosum, as well how the brain can communicate without it, and creating new pathway via nonneural route. Howsoever, the concept of the interpreter, as Gazzaniga stated is perhaps one of the most important findings of the split-brain research, showing us that our brain had a capacity to create motives to our everyday behaviours and feelings, excusing us for doing things that it is not logical. Gazzaniga (1985, 2011) stated about the modularity brain as: “the human brain is not an all-purpose, centralized computing device but rather is organized in a modular fashion, consisting of distributed, specialized circuits that have been sculpted by evolution and development to perform specific subfunctions while preserving substantial plasticity.” , which lead to another hypothesis about our brain functions, needing more research.

      綜上所述,裂腦病患者的實驗仍然會導致大腦功能的新發現。在過去的50年里,對裂腦病患者進行了測試和觀察,為科學研究提供了一個新的視角。側化理論是PET掃描、fMRI等技術出現之前的第一個發現。交叉線索是另一個偉大的發現,它不僅顯示了胼胝體的作用,以及大腦如何在沒有胼胝體的情況下溝通,并通過非神經途徑創建新的途徑。然而,正如加扎尼加所說,解釋器的概念可能是裂腦研究中最重要的發現之一,它向我們表明,我們的大腦有能力為我們的日常行為和情感創造動機,為我們做一些不合邏輯的事情提供借口。Gazzaniga(1985, 2011)對模塊化大腦的描述是:“人類的大腦不是一個萬能的、集中的計算設備,而是以模塊化的方式組織起來的,由分布的、專門的電路組成,這些電路在進化和發展過程中被塑造出來,以執行特定的子功能,同時保持大量的可塑性?!?,這導致了關于我們大腦功能的另一個假設,需要更多的研究。

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